恐怖組織的戰爭法適用問題

葉錦鴻;林正順

中文摘要

眾所周知地,國際法的主體是國家,至多包括國際組織或個人這種限定性的主體,屬於「私人性質」的恐怖組織在國際法上應如何定義?同時,傳統的戰爭法僅認定由國家正規軍所進行的暴力行為是合法行為,並不將由私人組織所進行之暴力行為視為適用對象,而僅將其認定為一般犯罪。但時至今日,原本僅設定以主權國家間的武力紛爭為適用範圍的戰爭法,已逐漸擴大其適用範圍至國家與叛亂者等「非國家主體」之間的武力衝突,或是「非國家主體」與「非國家主體」之間的軍事衝突。由於與非國家機關之武裝集團間的武力衝突可以適用戰爭法,而在國與國之間的武力紛爭中,也有不屬於國家軍隊的非正規軍的活動。目前的恐怖組織有些甚至擁有不遜於小型主權國家的破壞力,故恐怖活動已不能單純用「私人性質的組織犯罪」來處理,於此種狀況下,「恐怖組織」是否可視為準國際法主體而適用戰爭法?戰爭法是否須在「國家所進行的戰爭」之外,再涵蓋「私人組織所進行的恐怖活動」?這些都是本文希望討論的問題。

 

The Application of Law of War for Terrorist Organizations

Chin-Hung Yeh;Cheng-Shung Lin

abstract

As is known by all, the main body of International Law is the state, in its widest definition it includes international organizations and individuals which are a limited body. So how do we define 'private' terrorist organizations in International Law? Traditional Law of War only regarded the violence organized by national regular armies as a legal act; the violence organized by personal organizations was only a general crime. Originally the Law of War was only applicable to military force disputes between sovereign states, but nowadays, it is expanding its application to military disputes between states and traitors which are not part of the main body of state, or military conflicts between forces which are both 'non main body of state'. The Law of War is applicable to military conflicts between military organizations of non state agency. And there are acts of non regular armies in military disputes between states. Nowadays some terrorist organizations even possess destructive capabilities not less strong than small sovereign states. So terrorist acts no longer can be simply dealt with under 'crime of private organizations'. Under these circumstances, can 'terrorist organizations' be considered under the main-body-to-be of International Law and under application of the Law of War? Should the Law of War cover ' terrorist acts held by private organizations ' apart from 'war held by state '? These are the subjects we'll discuss in this essay.