民主、法治與全球化─論拉丁美洲的法律發展困境

巨克毅;許震宇

中文摘要

本文所欲正視的問題在於,為何須付出這麼多努力在拉丁美洲建立「民主」和「法治」,但結果卻仍是不成功。這些努力最初是模仿後殖民時代的歐洲,而後日益追隨美國的國際聲望,並可能由此得到各種法律發展運動之支持。此外,本文之分析所針對者,是從拉丁美洲北部向拉丁美洲南部推進的新正統之問題。吾人觀察到法律在拉丁美洲有著很長歷史,但從未在各國國內得過正當性。法律是引進的,主要和精英相聯繫,但它並未提供過任何東西給普通國民。吾人贊成法治重要性的日益增加,但並不認為在當前全球化的時代中,合法輸出的制度在拉丁美洲會取得成功的改革。簡言之,由於欠缺一套制度去傳達「被統治者和統治者遵守同樣規則」(王子犯法與庶民同罪)的理念與實踐,全球化反將會惡化原本即不平穩的國家法治發展狀況;縱然法律全球化的基本假定是:國家的治理及其原則都被公民社會所吸收。新的處方可能導致改革,但或許並非如此。

 

Democracy, Rule of Law and Globalization─ The Dilemma of Latin America’s Law and Developments

Chu,Ker-yieh;Hsu,Chen-yu

abstract

The problem that we try to clarify in this text will mainly be the discussion of failure sequence of building up “democracy” and “rule of law” in Latin America after putting so many efforts. Those efforts are such as imitating European systems which are in the post colonial era and then gradually following the international reputation of United States of America and hopefully to gain supports for their legal development. Besides, the analysis will focus on new political legitimacy proceed from southern to northern America. In our observations, there is a long history of law in Latin America, but the legitimacy has never been approved within each country. The law was introduced, connected to elites mainly, but offered nothing to common people. We agree that the importance of law (and rule of law) is increasing.