德國刑事訴訟程序辯護人的功能及地位─至今仍具話題性的一個爭論

Werner Beulke 著;吳俊毅 譯

中文摘要

在德國,在程序當中被告得隨時獲辯護人的協助。然而,關於辯護人的地位卻是有爭論的。法院認為,辯護人不但要對被告提供協助,而且必須當作是一個非政府的司法機關來行為。許多人反對這個將辯護人描述為非政府的司法機關的理論,不過,這些反對的看法是不具有說服力的,一旦將來自於作為司法機關法律地位的責任,限縮在不受被告意思所拘束的責任,並且將刑事司法的有效性維持在至少是核心的要求。這個理論最重要的結論是─可以稱為是辯護的司法機關理論,儘管只是有限的責任(限制的機關理論)─辯護人要保持誠實並且因此禁止說謊。

 

Funktionen und Stellung des Verteidigers im deutschen Strafverfahren - eine bis heute aktuelle Kontroverse

Werner Beulke ; Jiuan-Yih Wu

abstract

In Germany the accused may at any time during the proceedings obtain the assistance of a defence counsel. There is, however, some controversy about the legal position of the defence counsel. The courts insist that the defence counsel is not only required to assist the accused but must also act as a non-governmental organ to administer justice. There are many objections to this theory which characterizes the defence as a non-governmental organ to administer justice, but these objections are not convincing if the duties which are supposed to arise out of counsel’s legal position as an organ to administer justice are reduced to the obligation to act independently from client’s wishes and to maintain the effectiveness of the criminal justice system at least in its core requirements. The most important consequence of this theory – which may be called “theory of the defence as an organ to administer justice, albeit with limited duties” (eingeschrankte Organtheorie) – is that defence counsel is required to keep to the truth and is thus prohibited to lie.