電子監控與性犯罪者─借鑒美國經驗?

蕭宏宜

中文摘要

近年來,電子監控已然崛起,成為高危險的性犯罪者於交付保護管束後的輔助手段。在美國,如雨後春筍般的立法,尤其透過全球定位系統(GPS)以監管特定性犯罪者,更是社區監控的主流。 電子監控似乎就降低再犯提供了進一步保證,然而,由於相關裝置往往無法及時發送或接收訊號,甚至還有大量的錯誤訊息,仍無法揮離裝置可靠度與有效性的質疑。本研究包括:(1)探問電子監控作為避免性犯罪者違反保護管束規範、甚至再犯的效果;(2)就研究發現提供解釋;(3)介紹美國的立法現況;(4)引述其對性犯罪者人際關係、家庭與工作等的影響;(5)總和前述,針對公眾安全、降低立法與執行負面衝擊,提供具體建議。本文同時質疑認定保安處分亦不得溯及既往的刑法修正,應屬錯誤。 就性犯罪者的處遇而言,將其拒於社會之外,無助於問題的解決,更可能導致高再犯率;在刑事司法體系已然忘記社會復歸的目標時,或許只能寄望於社會願意給予寬恕的機會。

 

Electronic Monitoring and Sex Offenders

Hung-Yi Hsiao

abstract

In recent years, electronic monitoring (EM) has gained prominence in corrections as a probation supervision alternative for high-risk sex offenders. Additionally, in the U.S., there has been a recent proliferation of laws that require the use of EM, especially Global Positioning Systems (GPS), for specified sex offenders supervised in the community for enhanced supervision. Though EM devices show promise as a step towards lowering recidivism and sex offenses altogether, they are not infallible. EM devices frequently lose the satellite signal resulting in numerous, unnecessary alerts. This study include: (1) exploring the effect of electronic monitoring (EM) as a supervision enhancement for sex offenders in terms of probation violations, and the commission of new crimes; (2) providing an explanation of the findings; (3) documenting the implementation of EM in United States; (4) identifying and documenting the impact that EM has on sex offenders’ personal relationships, families, employment, and assimilation within the community; and (5) developing evidence-based recommendations to improve public safety and lessen negative consequences for sex offenders and their families. This Article also argues that the legislator wrongly decided that conservatory measures violate the Ex Post Facto Clause and should be overturned. Banishing Sex offenders from society promises no resolution to the offenses, and likely only creates a higher probability of recidivism. The criminal justice system has already forgotten its goal of rehabilitation, but the hope is that society will not refuse even the possibility of offering forgiveness.