由比較法觀點論食品安全管理規範之檢討

吳行浩

中文摘要

繼2008年國內爆發三聚氰胺毒害事件後,2011年5月起又爆發食品中蓄意掺入塑化劑(DEHP)的毒害事件,舉凡市售飲料、糖漿、酵素、益生菌等產品均被檢驗出含有塑化劑成份,造成民眾對於食品安全的信心徹底崩解。此次塑化劑毒害風暴不但嚴重影響國人健康,對於台灣製造的國際形象造成重創。雖然塑化劑毒害事件造成超過百億元市值的損失,卻也突顯創造全面檢討國內食品安全網的缺漏之處,並創造由政府至民間以痛定思痛的態度徹底改革的契機。人類的生活科技自上世紀中期以來,以相當驚人之速度快速發展。本文基於食品中掺入具毒性的致癌物質,對於人體健康的威脅最為直接,以及對於社會經濟衝突的立即性等源由,將以法律面向的觀點,檢討我國目前現行食品安全相關法律架構與執行的缺漏。本文並將以比較法觀點探討美國、歐盟有關食品安全規範特點與實踐經驗,並藉以提供我國未來完善食品衛生安全法制的建議。本文最後將提供數點建議,期待未來食品安全管制由現行置重點於消費端的事後稽查,轉向為建立食品的源頭管理與可追溯性制度的全面監管制度。具體修法建議例如建構完整的上市前審查機制(premarket approval)、食品流向追蹤、對於具潛在健康危害的食品,強化主管機關採取預防措施(precautionary action)的權限,以及加強向民眾宣導與落實食品風險溝通制度等,以確保國民健康並使國人重拾對於本國食品的消費信心。

 

Examining Taiwan’s Food Safety Regulatory Systems- with Special Reference to U.S. and EU’s Legal Experience in Comparison

Hsing-Hao Wu

abstract

Since the outbreak of deliberate introduction of DEHP into food chain in May 2011, the consumers’ faith in food safety has totally collapsed. The contamination event has not only resulted in serious adverse health effects but also strike the international reputation for MIT(made in Taiwan) products. Although there is estimation of over 10 million NT dollars loss for the recent DEHP contamination event, this food contamination crisis provides an unprecedented opportunity for government authorities, public interest groups, experts, food chain industry, and general public to discuss the major drawbacks of existing food safety regulatory programs. This article will conduct a comparative analysis of food safety legal regime in the U.S and EU, including the up-to date legal development in the U.S. In light of legal experience implemented in the U.S. and EU legal, this article provide some suggestions for Taiwan future legal development concerning food safety, such as the establishment of premarket approval system for food additives, food tracing systems, precautionary approaches to novel food, and risk communication.