山坡地超限利用相關法制與其衍生之法律問題

鍾秉正

中文摘要

山坡地超限利用管制乃我國水土保持之重要措施,機關就全國山坡地進行調查、分類,編定該地區之可 利用限度。超限利用通常是指水土保持義務人將管制造林區用作農業使用的情形。對於超限利用,傳統上的規制方式為「限期改正」、「違規處罰」、「配合強制措 施」等,但由於人民依賴務農維生,管制之成效有限。關於超限利用之管制依據,現有制定在先的「山坡地保育利用條例」與其後的「水土保持法」。由於二者皆屬 現行規範,其如何適用有待釐清。再者,限期改正之成果應如何認定,農民希望能待果樹收成周期衰退之後再逐年造林,然機關之意見與民眾之期待落差甚大。縱使 其間搭配「獎勵造林」之措施,但誘因仍不足。最後,超限利用山坡地中約有1/4為原住民保留地,相關管制如何與晚近立法的「原住民族基本法」相配合?此乃 考驗政府跨部會的整合能力。
      有鑑於相關問題積蓄已久,法學面的討論卻不多見,故本文乃先行釐清其管制依據,繼而分析衍生之法律問題,希望讀者能明瞭超限利用管制之來龍去脈。之後則從 計畫行政的學理基礎為討論,以「國土計劃法草案」之新思維作指標,企圖找出調和與再出發的方向。

 

The Regulations of the Exceeding Utilization of Slopeland and the Legal Problems Regarded

Ping-Cheng Chung

abstract

The regulations of “exceedingutilization of slopeland” is one of measures adopted to the “soil and water conservation treatment and maintenance” in the R.O.C., the regulatory authority has to investigate and classify the slopeland of the entire country and appraise the limitations of utilization. The term“exceedingutilization of slopeland” usually means the agronomic usages which the soil and water conservation obligors take in the Protection belt. The traditional regulations ofexceeding utilization of slopeland are “request within a prescribed time limit”,“punishment” and “enforcement”, however most of the obligors make livings by farming, so that these regulations can’t produce effectively. Exceeding utilization of slopeland is regulated by the “Utilization and Transfer of Reserved Mountainous Land Act” and “Soil and water Conservation Act” however how to apply the Administration Law should be clarified. Furthermore how to determine the “request within a prescribed time limit” is also a big problem, because there is a gap between the government and farmers who are eager to afforest after harvest. Even though the government give reward to the afforest, it is can’t be a workable policy. Finally, according to “The Indigenous Peoples Basic Law”, the exceeding utilization of slopelands should preserve 1/4 for the “Indigenous peoples’ regions”. So how to integrate the department of the government is also a problem.
       Due to little scholar articles discuss these enormous problems, this article will introduce the base of regulations, then analyze the legal problems on these issues. Last, the article will discuss based on the Administrative Planning and the draft of National Land Management Act and attempt to find a balance and a new way to solve these problems.