論聯邦德國軍事憲法體系的建構與落實

范聖孟

中文摘要

德國基本法於1949年5月23日通過後,象徵著德意志聯邦共和國的成立並確定了德國為一民主、 共和、社會福利、法治國家與客觀的價值體系,有關國防軍事方面,其條文占整部憲法相當之份量,由歷次修正情形亦可看出對於國防事務的重視,除了聯邦專屬立 法、軍隊派遣與指揮、國家緊急權力以及國會監督與制衡之外,尚包括良心自由等基本權利保障、軍隊國家化、文人領軍及政治中立等規定,勾勒出法治國家對軍隊 所應具備的條件並建構完整的軍事憲法體系。

 

A Study on the Military Constitutional System of the Federal Republic of Germany in Construction and Practice

Seng-Meng Fan

abstract

The Federal Republic of Germany was formally established as a democratic, republic, social welfare, rule of law nation and objective value systems after the Basic Law was passed on May 23, 1949. Its share in total articles constitution of considerable proportion with aspects of defense provisions. It also shows the importance of military affairs from the amendments in all past. In addition to the exclusive legislative power of the federation in defense and protection of the civilian population, there are many other provisions, for example dispatch and command the army, national emergency powers and congressional oversight and also include the protection of fundamental rights such as freedom of conscience, nationalization of the military, civilian control and political neutrality, and so on. It is sketched out the military conditions of a principle rule of law nation and also established a military constitutional system.