自最高法院100年度台上字第74號民事判決論商業照管義務暨適航性之區分

羅俊瑋

中文摘要

維 持船舶適航性為海上運送人首要義務,運送人應盡其謹慎注意義務達成適航性要求,其為運送人主張責任限制或免責事由之前提。由聯合國通過之鹿特丹規則改變海 牙規則、海牙威士比規則暨我國海商法於發航前或發航時盡適航性之相對性義務,而將之擴展至全程運送,並特別明訂由運送人提供裝載貨物之貨櫃,亦有適航性之 要求。我國海商法第62條第1項第3款:「運送人或船舶所有人於發航前及發航時,對於下列事項,應為必要之注意及措置:…三、使貨艙、冷藏室及其他供載運 貨物部分適合於受載、運送與保存。」為適航性有關適貨性之規定。同法第63條規定:「運送人對於承運貨物之裝載、卸載、搬移、堆存、保管、運送及看守,應 為必要之注意及處置。」為運送人對貨物之商業照管義務規定。我國最高法院100年度台上字第74號民事判決認為海商法第63條規定為適航性中之適貨性規 定,其對適航性認知是否有誤,本文即就此加以討論。

 

A Study on the Differences between the Duty to Care for Cargo and Seaworthiness-
Relevant to the Supreme Court Civil Judgement Tai Shan Tsu No. 74 (2012)

Chun- Wei Lo

abstract

To make and keep the ship seaworthy is the overriding obligation for the ocean carrier. The carrier should meet the request of seaworthiness before asserting the limitation and exemption of his liability for cargo damage or loss. The carrier should pay due diligence in the whole period under Rotterdam Rules. The rules legislated by Rotterdam Rules was a substitute for the rules to pay due diligence before and at the beginning of the voyage in the Hague-Visby Rules and R.O.C. Maritime Act. To make and keep any container supplied by the carrier in or upon which the goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation also should fulfill the request of seaworthiness stated in Art. 62 (1) III of R.O.C. Maritime Act stipulated that “The carrier or ship owner shall be bound before and at the time of the commencement of the voyage, to exercise due diligence to…3. make the holds, refrigeration and cooling chambers, and all other parts of the ship used to carry the cargo, fit and safe for reception, carriage and preservation.” Section 3 is for cargo worthy. In addition, Art.63 of R.O.C. Maritime Act stipulated:”The carrier shall exercise due diligence to properly and carefully load, discharge, handle, stow, care for, carry and keep the cargo carried.” It is the duty of custody of the cargo. R.O.C Civil Judgment Tai Shan Tsu No. 74 (Sup. Ct., 2011) wrongly stated that carrier’s due diligence to make cargo worthiness is stipulated in Article 63 of R.O.C. Maritime Act and that is the precondition component for the exemption clauses in the Article 69. In fact, to make cargo worthiness is stipulated in Art. 62 (3) of R.O.C. Maritime Act. Art. 63 of Maritime Act was made for the duty of custody of the cargo. We will have more discussions on these relevant issues.