涉外民事法律適用法之新境界─以契約為中心

吳光平

中文摘要

新修正「涉外民事法律適用法」已於2010年5月26日公布,並於2011年5月26日生效及施行。關於涉外契約法律適用,修正前之舊「涉外民事法律適用 法」以第6條一個條文規範,新修正「涉外民事法律適用法」雖亦僅以第20條一個條文規範,但將當事人之準據法合意限於明示合意、當事人未明示合意時以彈性 確定式之「最重要牽連關係理論」確定準據法、以「特徵性履行理論」作為判斷與契約關係最切之標準,可謂做出了根本性之變革。本文就新修正「涉外民事法律適 用法」涉外契約法律適用之變革加以歸納、分析、評述,計有規定明示意思以終結當事人合意方法之爭議、採行最重要牽連關係理論以促成法律適用具體妥當性、輔 以特徵性履行理論以提升法律適用之可預測性、規定特徵性履行方住所地法為特徵性履行地法、未規定消費契約與勞動契約之特則等五點,並分從準據法之明示合 意、關係最切之法律的認定、勞動∕僱傭契約之法律適用三方面歸納、分析、評述我國法院實務適用新修正「涉外民事法律適用法」第20條之相關判決,期能對新 修正「涉外民事法律適用法」第20條法現實適用時所可能引發之問題與疑義,提供一些可參酌之說明。

 

A New Vision of “Law Governing the Application of Laws to Civil Matters Involving Foreign Elements”- With Emphasis on Contracts

Kuang-Ping Wu

abstract

The Taiwanese private international law, "Act Governing the Choice of Law in Civil Matters Involving Foreign Elements ", was promulgated on June 6, 1953. After sixty-one years, the new "Act Governing the Choice of Law in Civil Matters Involving Foreign Elements " was amended and announced on 26 May 2010 and has been in effect since 26 May 2011. The reforms of choice of law in contracts are the most attractive part of this new Taiwanese private international law. There are three fundamental reforms in the new Taiwanese private international law: firstly, the intention of the parties for applicable law is only allowed express; secondly, where there is no express intention of the parties, the applicable law of the contract is the law which is most closely connected with the contract; finally, it shall be presumed that the contract is most closely connected with the country where the party who is to effect the performance which is characteristic of the contract has, at the time of conclusion of the contract, his domicile. But there is no reform of special conflicts rules of employment contract and consumer contract in the new Taiwanese private international law. This article analyzes these reforms and offers suggestions on possible amendment. Besides, there are some court decisions related the issues of choice of law in contracts in the new Taiwanese private international law. This article comments on these court decisions also offers suggestions on related controversial issues.