刑法共同正犯概念之理解新義—第28條的現在與未來

游明得

中文摘要

現行刑法第28條的應用修正了許多單獨犯成立的要求,如共同行為決意修正了主觀構成要件;共同行為實施與整體性之因果關係認定,修正了客觀構成要件。而在該條文的使用時機,學說與實務普遍認為不只是共同行為人實現了部分構成要件的要求,甚至行為人已經完整實現構成要件者,在論罪上也都必須適用此一條文。然而,刑法第28條的適用時機,對於共同行為人自身行為即能符合犯罪論檢驗成立單獨正犯者,應加以排除,而只針對未完整實現單獨正犯者方可適合,如此也才符合共同正犯的規範目的。除此之外,綜觀共同正犯諸般問題的發展,共同正犯實應依正犯的本質重新省思其存在正當性。本文主張以刑法第28條為實證基礎的「共同正犯」概念,應該回歸最基本的「單獨正犯」之「質」的理解,這是目前第28條所可能存在的基礎。此外,本文對於如此「質」的判斷,也區分為定式構成要件與不定式構成要件作不同處理:在不定式構成要件,只要是可以支配犯罪構成要件實現者,也就是具有構成要件實現的歸責關連者,此時個別行為人共同為之,即有可能獲致劃一論罪的結論。至於在定式構成要件中,即使其他共同行為人有以共同行為決意為基礎的行為個別實施,也無法據此涵蓋所有的構成要件,而視為完全構成要件的實現。

 

The New Understanding of Joint Principal Offenders in the Criminal Law-The Present and Future of the Article 28

Ming-De Yu

abstract

The New perception of Joint Principal Offenders in Criminal Law- Initiate Article 28 In Current Criminal law Article 28, the precise moment to initiate shall be based upon whether the Joint Principal behaviors itself satisfied the requirement as an self-independent conductor, so as to rule out as an Joint Principal Offenders. Generally speaking, Joint Principal Offenders should be grounded and reestablished by the essence of “principal offender.” This article will address that the joint Principal Offenders in Article 28 ought to be redefined through the basic quantity of “principal offender” and that is the only existence reason for the Article 28. Moreover, this article will divide “principal offender’s quantity” into finite and infinite requirements;infinite refers to as for those who can mandate and practice the requirements, in other words for those individual behaviors to commit the offense collectively. As to infinite, even other collective behaviors collectively taking responsible according to a mutual consensus, it cannot comprise the overall requirements, thus it can’t be considered as to implement the complete inquiry.