無名契約典型化之因素


游進發

中文摘要

民法上之有名債權契約,不僅具備整體或形成類型之性質,同時亦是平均或頻繁類型。立法者計劃將新型態契約有名契約化,亦即將無名契約典型契約化時,應注意方法論上類型論之要求。無名契約典型化之立法,首先應符合經驗類型之要求:該契約於人民法律生活中之實踐,應已達到頻繁以上之程度;將存在於一切個別、具體契約中均存在之特徵(必要之點,亦即要素),放進定義規定裡,至於於個別、具體契約中通常發生之特徵(非必要之點裡之常素),則涉及契約典型風險之分配,通常以任意規定加以規範,亦有可能以強行規定進行規範。對這項立法作為而言,經驗類型之方法論認知,乃不可或缺者,否則新制定之有名契約法,恐怕將違逆經驗。違逆人民經驗之有名契約法,不僅增加人民適應法律之成本,恐怕亦有侵害國民主權之嫌疑。 無名契約典型化之立法,其次則應注意規範類型之要求。無名契約典型化之立法,應自現行規定中取得意義關聯,亦即將之融入現行法秩序內,以使相同者受到相同評價,不同者受到不同評價。換句話說,不應與現行法規定發生衝突。民國88年4月21日施行之民法債編修正,例如其中關於合會與旅遊契約之規定之部分,符合方法論上經驗類型規範化要求,乃相當成功之立法作為。其不僅自人民之生活經驗而出,亦即符合人民之合會與旅遊生活經驗,亦與現行法秩序相融合。

 

The Elements for the Typification of a Contract

Chin-Fa You

abstract

The nominated contract in civil law not only has the nature of the whole or formational type, but also has the average or frequent type. When the Lawmaker plans to typify a new kind of contract, he should pay attention to the requirements of the methodology of typification. The legislation of the typification of contract should firstly meet the requirements of the empirical type. The practice of the contract in people's legal life should have reached the level of frequency; characteristics that exist in each individual specific contract, i.e. essence of contract, should be put in the definition, on the other hand, characteristics that are usually occurring in a particular contract, i.e. naturalia, distribute typical risks involved in contract which usually governed by arbitrary regulations and may be regulated by force regulations. For this legislativation, the methodological knowledge of the empirical type is indispensable, otherwise the new kind of legislated nominated contract law will violate the life experience of people, which not only increases the cost of the people's adaptation to the law, but might be the infringement of popular sovereignty. In the process of Legislation of contract typification, lawmakers should pay attention to the requirements of normative type. What shall be included in the definition regulation? The legislation of contract typification should obtain the meaningful relation from the existing regulations and be integrated into the existing law order, so that the same things are evaluated in the same way, and different things are evaluated differently. In the Republic of China on April 21, 2008, the debt amendment of Civil Law such as the provisions of the bid society and tourism contract are coordinated with the requirements of empirical type, therefore it was a quite successful legislation. It not only come from the people's life experience i.e. in line with the life experience of bid society and tourism, but also integrated with the existing law order.