警察蒐集與利用個人資料職權之研究─以警察職權行使法第十七條為中心


許義寶

中文摘要

警察職權行使法(簡稱警職法)第17 條規定:「警察對於 依本法規定所蒐集資料之利用,應於法令職掌之必要範圍內為 之,並須與蒐集之特定目的相符。但法律有特別規定者,不在此 限。」另隱私權雖非憲法明文列舉之權利,惟基於人性尊嚴與個 人主體性之維護及人格發展之完整,並為保障個人生活私密領域 免於他人侵擾及個人資料之自主控制,隱私權乃為不可或缺之基 本權利。 警察之任務職責,在於防止危害及預防與偵查犯罪。警察之 資料蒐集行動,有基於防止危害或基於對犯罪行為之預防性的抗 制。所謂危害,是指一事實狀態或一行為,若不及時加以阻止,足以對公共安全或公共秩序產生損害之虞者稱之。行政機關蒐 集、處理或利用個人資料,需要有「特定目的」。所謂的「特定 目的」?依經濟合作暨發展組織(OECD)所揭示之「目的明確 化原則」及「限制利用原則」,個人資料於蒐集時其目的即應明 確化,其後的利用亦應與蒐集目的相符合,於目的變更後亦應明 確化,個人資料的利用,除符合法定要件外,不得為特定目的以 外的利用。 本文擬探討警察蒐集與利用個人資料之相關法律問題,並以 警察職權行使法第十七條規定為中心。有關警察蒐集個人資料之 利用,須與警察職務有關及符合原來蒐集之目的。除非有符合個 資法之規定,得以為原來目的外之利用。另本文引介個人資料保 護法之相關規範,及分析行政法院之相關判決,以作為討論之基 礎。

 

A Study on Police's Power to Collect and Use Personal Data -The 17th of the police power law

Yih-Bao Shiu

abstract

Article 17 of the police power law states that: “The use of personal data collected by the police, should be within the necessary scope of the statutory authority, and it must be consistent with the specific purpose of collecting. However, unless otherwise specified by law, this is not the limit.” In addition, privacy rights are not expressly provided by the Constitution. For the protection of human dignity and individual subjectivity, and the integrity of personality development, in order to protect personal privacy from being intruded by others and to control personal data, privacy is an essential basic right. The task of the police is to prevent harm, prevent and investigate crimes. The police collect personal data to prevent the harm or prevent the crime. Hazard refers to a factual state or behavior. If it is not stopped in time, it may be enough to damage public safety or public order. The administrative agency collects, processes or uses personal data, need a "specific purpose." What is the "specific purpose?" According to the “Principles for Clear Purposes” and “Principles for Restricted Uses” as stipulated by the Organ for Economic Co-operation and Development, the purpose of personal data collection should be clear, and its subsequent use should be consistent with the purpose of collection. After the change of purpose, it should also be clarified, the use of personal data, in addition to meeting the statutory requirements, it must not be used for specific purposes. This article intends to explore the legal issues related to the collection and use of personal data by the police. It is centered on the provisions of Article 17 of the Police Power Law. The use of police to collect personal data, must be related to police duties and meet the purpose of the original collection. Unless it meets the requirements of the Personal Data Protection Act, it can be used outside its original purpose. This article also introduces the relevant regulations of the personal data protection law. And analyze relevant decisions of the administrative courts, as a basis for discussion.