數位化、大數據和人工智慧對刑事訴訟的衝擊


葛祥林

中文摘要

數位化、大數據和人工智慧等概念,雖然經常在媒體和專業 文章等都被提起,但多數人並不理解,這些概念真正的涵義是什 麼?其技術上與傳統分析方法究竟有何不同?然而,一旦不理解 這些新的基本概念,就更不得理解,其對於刑事訴訟法的真正衝 擊何在。因此,本文先行指出數位化、大數據和人工智慧的簡短 定義,並且說明其如何能夠經由新的運算方法(類神經網絡等) 及新的分析模式(數據剖析)在法學領域加以利用。具體言之, 本文解釋為何運用傳統邏輯運算的網格式偵查(Rasterfahndung (數據對比))以及運用類神經網絡的數據剖析(profiling)形 成截然不同的分析結果,使得兩者對數據的利用以及在證明上具有十分不同特徵。同時,本文追蹤相關技術如何導致刑事訴訟的 基本概念轉變,乃至刑事訴訟的自我定位發生非常大的、現今逐 一實現的變化。依此,歐盟法的相關法規(歐盟綱領(EU) 2016/680)已經將刑事實體法的犯罪預防(Prävention)目的納 入刑事訴訟法範圍,甚至將之納入偵查階段,使其在尚未進行刑 事訴訟意義下的偵查之前,都已經與警察法中的風險控管概念出 現。相對於此,德國刑事訴訟法仍然堅持刑事訴訟法的傳統定 位,即堅持以事後壓抑(Repression)先前已發生刑事犯罪為基 本立場。基於此,德國法必須調整警察法,藉此將預防風險的利 益納入一個由警察法及刑事訴訟法所共建的偵查體系。

 

The Impact of Digitalization, Big Data and AI on Criminal Procedure

George Gesk

abstract

Although digitalization and big data are notions that are rather familiar terms in our public debate, but most people don’t really understand the difference between these new techniques and more traditional ways of analysis. Therefore, it is often not clear what differences occur when these new analytical tools are applied to criminal procedure law. Therefore, this article first gives some short definitions for digitalization and big data before explaining how they can be analyzed in the realm of criminal procedure law with previously unseen tools such as neuronal networks or profiling. In concrete terms, this contribution compares investigative methods that make use of traditional logic, such as large scale data comparison (Rasterfahndung) and profiling, which makes use of techniques such as artificial neuronal networks. Due to the specifics of analytical methods applied, both utilize data in very different ways and produce very different results, lending them different potential within investigation and evidential value. This leads to changes in the possibilities and aims of criminal procedure law, thus redefining scope and aims of investigation. Due to these changes, EU law (guideline(EU)2016/680) integrates prevention of crimes into the realm of criminal procedure, it even introduces prevention as a goal for investigation. On the other side, we can see how i.e. German criminal procedure law keeps up with the basic concept of repression as core value of criminal law, thus not allowing for investigation prior to the suspicion that a crime already happened. Therefore German law takes another path and combines police law and criminal procedure law in a very new fashion, allowing both laws to form a common investigative cluster.