韓國「FTA 談判程序」制度的發展與其限制


河凡植

中文摘要

韓國在推動與智利的 FTA 談判以來,由於預期談判過程中 此 FTA 將造成農業的損失,韓國政府在談判進行時遭遇到來自 國會、農民與民眾的反對,進而導致對其談判可能產生政治上的 風險。因此,韓國政府制定「FTA 談判程序制度」,使其法制 化,藉此將談判程序定型化。韓國 FTA 談判程序制度區分談判 程序為談判前、中、後階段,且規定行政部門在各階段上的細部 程序。韓國談判程序制度是始於「FTA 締結程序規則」,之後 被「通商程序法」取代。「FTA 締結程序規則」是以總統令發 布之行政規則,著重於跨部會協調機制,以有效行政部門推動 FTA 締結。「通商程序法」是個專法,著重於加強國會監督與談判透明性,以牽制行政部門在談判上的專橫,藉此謀求行政部 門與國會以及民間之間溝通與互動。然而,由於韓國憲政體制、 行政部門與國會關係以及韓國對內外經濟狀況與政治外交環境, 韓國行政部門以談判機密為優先,無論談判中或者談判後,不公 開談判內容,因此在國會與民間無法瞭解行政部門的談判之情況 下,國會監督權與公民的知情權仍受限制。由於韓國行政部門與 國會關係為執政黨支持行政部門的政策,在執政黨的支持下,行 政部門仍省略國內程序。從此角度上看,韓國 FTA 談判程序的 確有發展,但其程序只不過是形式化的流程。

 

The Development of South Korea’s FTA Bargaining Process and Its Limits

Bum-sig Ha

abstract

Since South Korea has pursued FTA negotiations with Chile, there has been concern that the FTA will cause agriculture losses during the preliminary negotiations. The Korea’s government faced opposition from the National Assembly, peasants, and the people in the process of FTA negotiations, which led to political threats. Therefore, the South Korea’s government has formulated the “FTA negotiation procedure system” to legalize, thereby formalizing the negotiation procedures. South Korea’s FTA bargaining process is divided into pre-bargaining, bargaining, and post-bargaining stages, and it provides the specific procedures of the administrative departments in different stages. South Korea bargaining process starts from the "FTA Contracting Procedure Rules", which is later replaced by the Trade Procedure Act. "FTA Contracting Procedure Rules" is administrative rules released by president decree, focusing on the inter-department coordinating mechanism, which makes the administrative department effectively promote the FTA contracting. "Trade Procedure Act" is an exclusive Act which emphasizes on the Congress supervision and bargaining transparency so as to restrain the arbitrariness of the administrative departments during bargaining and then seek the communication and interaction among the administration, congress and the people. However, Due to Korea's constitutional system, administration and parliamentary relationship, domestic and foreign economic situation and diplomatic environment, South Korea’s government prioritizes the confidentiality of the negotiations. Regardless, during or after the negotiations, the content of the negotiations is not made public. Therefore, the parliament and the people cannot understand the government's negotiations, the power of parliamentary supervision and the right of citizens to know are still limited. Administration- Parliament Relations in South Korea is characterized by that the ruling party supports the policy of the administrative departments. Under the support of ruling party, the administration department still omits the domestic procedures. From this point of view, South Korea FTA bargaining process actually developed, but it is just a formalized process.