不適任教師條款適用於中小學之法律分析


許育典、林維毅

中文摘要

學生作為教育基本權的主體,在教育過程中,國家負有義務 給予保護。尤其不適任教師的問題存在已久,在歷經多次修法 後,一直希望能建構不適任教師的淘汰機制。從現實面觀察,雖 然教育部在現行法規範已建立相關淘汰及保障機制,並於近日通 過新修正的教師法。但檢視新修正的教師法,其規範尚不完整, 在法律明確性的檢驗下恐有剝奪教師工作權的可能性。同時,教 育部在處理不適任教師時,容易因家長、教育團體及社會輿論影 響,導致部分教師的行為是否真能構成不適任教師的法律要件, 是存在些許疑問。 對此,本文以為針對新修正教師法第 16 條第 1 項、第 19 條 第 4 項規定,均是延續過去舊教師法規定要件,僅是在條號上予 以改變而已,造成實務上對於不確定法律概念的解釋,往往無法 確切掌握。因此,本文首先建構中小學生教育基本權及教師工作 權的基礎,再從法律保留原則、法律明確性原則檢討新修正教師 法及相關規定。其次,從憲法基本權衝突的利益衡量為思考中 心,以中小學生的自我實現作為利益衡量的核心基礎,在新修正 教師法或相關規定對於不適任教師的構成要件上,提出本文觀 點,使其在適用上得加以審酌,最後並評析我國實務見解,一併 提出修法建議,使中小學生教育基本權及教師工作權均能獲得合 理保障。

 

The Legal Analysis about Incompetent Teacher Clause of the Elementary and High Schools’Teachers

Yue-Dian Hsu / Wei-Yi Lin

abstract

Students as the main body of fundamental right to education, the public authority has the obligation to give them protection in the education process. Especially, the problem of incompetent teacher has existed for a long time. After many revisions, we always hope to build elimination mechanism for incompetent teacher. Observing from the reality, although the Ministry of Education has established relevant elimination and guarantee mechanisms in the current legal norms. And recently passed the new amendment teachers law. But review the new amendment teachers law, the norms is not complete. Under the principle of clarity and definiteness of law, it is possibility of depriving the right to work of teachers. At the same time, when the Ministry of Education handles incompetent teacher, it is easy to be influenced because of parents, educational groups and public opinion. There are some doubts about whether the behavior of some teachers can really constitute the legal requirements of incompetent teacher. In response to the § 16(1) and § 19(4) of new amendment teachers law. It is a continuation of the requirements of the old teacher law in the past, which only to be changed in the amendment number. Resulting in practical interpretation of the concept can’t control the indefinite concepts of law. This paper first constructs the fundamental right to education for elementary and middle School students and the basis of teachers' work rights. Then reviews principle of legal reservation, principle of clarity and definiteness of law and focus on conflict of fundamental right. Basis For the interests measurement of the elementary and middle School students' self- fulfillment. Make constituting requirements for incompetent teacher can be more specific in legal interpretation. Finally, we will review our country’s practical opinions and propose amendments to the law. To ensure the fundamental right to education for elementary and middle School students and the right to work for teachers.