以「離婚後家庭」探討家事紛爭解決非訟法理之適用與界限


郭書琴

中文摘要

從當今家事事件法之施行與司法實踐觀察,作者以「準諮 商」一詞說明當代台灣家事法院的功能,並提出離婚夫妻因有未 成年子女,而形成所謂「離婚後家庭」(post-divorce family)。 亦即,前夫與前妻於裁判離婚後,嗣後因「離婚後家庭」互動不 良,導致再向法院聲請給付扶養費、改定親權或會面交往方式等 事件。是故,家事紛爭解決程序中,法院之角色從單純的裁判與 審理,逐漸改變成:為當事人導入與引介各種資源,使其重建新 的家庭生活秩序之「準諮商」型法院。 從家事法院依非訟法理為主要審理功能進行討論,本文認 為,沖淡處分權主義、辯論主義等色彩,已為當代家事法院之審 理立法論的演變進程。然而,如此是否將妨礙當事人之程序保障?法院依職權適用非訟法理之必要與界限為何?作者將指出, 法官以非訟法理指揮家事程序時,為求紛爭解決中的各當事人與 關係人權力結構平衡、與武器平等,應兼顧當事人與關係人之程 序保障,故建議法院積極使用程序監理人制度,以此機制,平衡 法官的職權主義色彩可能過強之虞。同時,希望以此方式,減輕 當事人已然錯置於法官之自己應行家庭自治、且應自我決定之責 任;且藉此對防止濫訴、有效運用寶貴法院資源、保護家事事件 之弱勢者等重要司法實踐議題等,有所助益。

 

The Application and Limitation of Rules of Non-Litigation Event/ Non-Contentious Matter in Post-Divorce Family Dispute Resolution Process

Shu-Chin Grace Kuo

abstract

This paper aims to tackle the issue of how “post-divorce family” challenges the family court in Taiwan. There are three themes constitutes this paper. In the first part, the author scrutinizes the role shifting of family court judge. The author proposes that the judges in Taiwan’s family court nowadays become the “coordinator” rather than a role of leading the adversarial system. The changing role of family court judge demonstrates in three levels: 1. Looking for mediation rather than litigation. 2. The evidence based adversarial system has been changed according to the characters of family disputes. 3. The third parties become as important as the adversarial two parties. As a result, the Rules of Non-Litigation Event become the vital role in the family dispute settlements. The second part of this paper discusses the child’s lawyer/parenting coordinator’s participation and contributions in the process of divorce disputes. The author looks for the U.S. experience as the comparative material to suggest the future development for child’s lawyer/parenting in Taiwan’s family court. The third part of this paper engages case analyses with the core idea of “post-divorce family” to illustrate the special character of family disputes particularly in the divorced cases that included children custody.