外國人之入出國自由


李錫棟

中文摘要

本文從自由主義的觀點和移動自由的權利本質,認為「外國人沒有入國的自由」這樣的說法對應到自由主義會顯得格格不入。因為將自由與平等當作全人類的權利,是自由主義的「基本原理」,依照這樣的邏輯,對於希望入國的外國人,國家原則上有義務接受其請求,才符合自由主義的精神。《世界人權宣言》一方面承認任何人都有離開任何國家的權利,另一方面又只承認有返回其本國的權利,而不保證有入境他國的權利。這在某種意義上是一種欺瞞的伎倆,因為他離開本國之後如果不能入境他國,難不成要住在公海上。事實上,現在各種權利的實現因為有國境的關係而被切割得支離破碎,各種權利的實現常常在國境內和國境外產生重大的差異,而妨礙了人們權利的實現。從地球村及個人的角度來看,國際間自由遷徙的權利才是所有權利的基礎。移動遷徙的自由一方面具有作為人身自由的面向,另一方面,禁止「入國的自由」,也限制了想要與這些外國人交易,或交往的本國人的經濟上、社會上的自由。從這樣的角度來看,理應承認外國人的入國自由,而只有當該外國人對本國而言有危害國家安全和國民重大福祉的可能時,始得例外施以最低限度的限制。不應單純的理解為國家主權所可以任意否定而不被保障的權利。

 

Freedom of Entry and Exit for Foreigners

Shyi-Dong Lii

abstract

This article discusses the perspective of liberalism and the essence of free movement right. "Foreigners do not have the freedom to enter the country" would seem incompatible with liberalism. Because treating freedom and equality as the rights of all mankind is the "fundamental principle" of liberalism, for foreigners who wish to enter the country, the state is obliged to accept their requests, which conforms to the spirit of liberalism. On the one hand, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes that everyone has the right to leave any country; on the other hand, it only recognizes the right to return to their own country but the right to enter other countries. In a sense, this is a deceitful trick because if he can't enter another country after he leaves his country, where can he go? In fact, the realization of various rights is now fragmented because of national borders. The realization of various rights often has significant differences between inside and outside of the country, which hinders the realization of people's rights. From the perspective of the global village and the individual, the right to move freely internationally is the root of all rights. On the one hand, the freedom to move and relocate has the aspect of personal freedom. On the other hand, the prohibition of "freedom of entry" also restricts the economic and social freedom of natives who want to trade or associate with foreigners. From this perspective, the freedom of entry of foreigners should be recognized, and it can be imposed with minimum restrictions only when the foreigner is likely to endanger the national security and the major welfare of the country. It should not be simply understood as a right that national sovereignty can be arbitrarily denied without being protected.